The 16th Central European Olympiad in Informatics, Tîrgu Mureş 2009

History of Târgu-Mureş


Situated at the crossing of three geographic and economic areas - The Transylvanian Field, The Mures Valley and The Nirajului Valley - the territory of Târgu-Mures has been the cradle of human settlements, starting from ancient times. Numerous material proofs attest the presence of Neolithic cultures and then those of the Bronze and Metal Ages. The archaeological diggings have brought to light Roman relics in the surroundings of the town. In the earliest document, in 1332 the locality appears under the name Novum Forum Siculorum (The New Market of the Seklars), the Seklars being those inhabitants who did not become serves, but lived freely with the duty of defending the boundaries of the Hungarian Kingdom. In 1405 the King of Hungary Sigismund de Luxemburg give the town the right to organize markets, and in 1482 Matei Corvin (Hunyadi Mátyás) also a Hungarian King give the city the title of free royal town. The name "market of the Seklars" was used until 1616, when Bethlen Gabor, prince of Transylvania, granted to the settlement the title Municipium, changing also its official name to Marosvásárhely (Market place on the Mures river - in Hungarian -). The name "market on the Mures river" has been preserved, being translated in the mother tongue of several merchants, who had maintained trade relations in the area: Târgu-Mureş - for the Romanians, Marosvásárhely - for the Hungarians, Neumarkt am Mieresch - for the Germans, etc. During the centuries many of the Transilvanian Princes were elected in this town.

Beginning with the 16th century, Târgu-Mureş excells as an important cultural and educational centre. The first school appears in 1492. From 1754 the Royal Table - Supreme Court of Transilvania was moved here, where worked Aranka György and Alexandru Papiu Ilarian. The greatest Hungarian poet, Petofi Sandor, fallen in the social movement of 1848, spent his last days in Târgu-Mureş. In 1786, the first printing shop is established and in 1802 count Teleki Sámuel, chancellor of Transylvania, gathering over 40,000 books, lays the foundations of the documentary library that bears his name even today.

Two mayors, Bernády György (1864-1938) and Emil Dandea (1893-1969) are considered to be the initiators of the town modernization. Dr. Bernády György the mayor of Târgu-Mureş, between 1902-1913 and 1926-1929. During his mandate, several achievements were accomplished, such as: sewerage, roads asphalting, the building of the power and water station, the building of several bridges, regularization of the stream of Mures river and public buildings were constructed - the Town Hall, the Palace of Culture. Dr. Emil-Aurel Dandea the mayor of Târgu-Mureş, between 1922-1926 and 1934-1937. Among the urbanistic and cultural achievements, one can mention the following: the statue of The Romanian Soldier (December 1923), providing the buildings for the functioning of the Romanian educational institutions: The Pedagogic School, ''Alexandru Papiu Ilaria'' College for Boys, ''Unirea'' College for Girls, The Commercial College, the foundation of the Orthodox Cathedral, Greek-Catholic Cathedral.

In the communist period huge factories were constructed, having various profiles: chemical, food producing, wood and leather processing, car building, electric apparatus and products, photosensitive materials and others. Nevertheless, Târgu-Mureş has remained a powerful cultural and university centre. Presently, Târgu-Mureş houses is a department of the Romanian Academy - The Social and Human Research Institute ''Gheorghe Şincai'', the Medicine and Pharmacy University, The Technical Sciences, Economy and Letters ''Petru Maior'' University, the Theatre Academy, University of Sciences ''Sapientia'', state and private higher education units.

Târgu-Mureş - access

Routes:
E60 - Oradea - Cluj-Napoca - Târgu-Mureş - Sighisoara - Brasov - Bucuresti - Constanta.
DN15 - Târgu-Mureş - Reghin - Toplita - Borsec - Piatra Neamt - Buhusi - Bacau.

Railways:
Razboieni - Târgu-Mureş - Deda
Razboieni - Oradea, Huedin, Cluj-Napoca, Teius, Medias, Sighisoara, Brasov, Ploiesti, Bucuresti.
Deda - Satu-Mare, Baia Mare, Dej, Toplita, Gheorgheni, Miercurea Ciuc, Sfantu Gheorghe, Brasov, Ploiesti, Bucuresti.

By air:
1. Transilvania Târgu-Mureş Airport
14,5 km from downtown Târgu Mures www.targumuresairport.ro
Târgu-Mureş (Vidrasău) - Bucuresti (Baneasa);
Bucuresti (Baneasa) - Târgu-Mureş (Vidrasău);
Târgu-Mureş (Vidrasău) - Budapesta;
Budapesta - Târgu-Mureş (Vidrasău)

2. International Airport Cluj-Napoca
99 km from Târgu-Mureş www.airportcluj.ro